Compare and Contrast the Russian and Chinese Revolutions
One of the questions asked you to identify a comparison between the Russian and Chinese Revolutions. The most commonly selected answer suggested that both replaced corrupt monarchies. That is also an incorrect answer. Consider: The Russian Revolution (1917) did not overthrow the Tsar. Nicholas II had been forced to abdicate months earlier by Aleksander Kerensky's Duma. So Lenin's Bolshevik Revolution was not against a corrupt monarchy (I'd call the Tsar more inept than corrupt anyway). Rather, it overthrew the Duma--an elected national assembly. You'll recall Kerensky's terrible miscalculation: he wanted to recover territory lost to the Germans before suing for peace, but the suffering Russians needed the war to end sooner, and at practically any cost. Lenin capitalized on this and used it to rally sufficient support against the Duma. The Chinese Revolution (1949) did not replace a corrupt monarchy. The last Qing emperor, Puyi, was forced to abdicate in 1912. That sufficiently rejects the notion that either revolution overthrew a monarchy of any kind. The answer to that question was that both revolutions involved a bloody civil war. In Russia, the "Reds" (Bolsheviks) defeated the "Whites" (Tsarist/Anti-Bolshevik) forces) in October 1922. The Chinese Civil War lasted longer, starting in the late 1920s--disrupted briefly by Japanese invasion in WWII-- with Mao Zedong's Communist forces defeating Chiang Kai-shek's Guomindang (nationalist) forces in 1950.
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