Ottoman Empire: Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine Empire.
Ibn-Rushd (Averroës): Iberian Muslim philosopher; studied Greek rationalism; ignored among Muslims but influential in Europe.
Ming Dynasty: replaced Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China.
Cheng Ho: Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the India Ocean.
Black Death: 14th century bubonic plague epidemic; decimated populations in Asia and Europe.
Renaissance: cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy ca. 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages.
Portugal, Castile and Aragon: regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Francesco Petrarch: Italian author and humanist; a major literary figure of the Renaissance.
Vivaldi brothers: Genoan explorers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic.
Henry the Navigator: Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in late postclassical Europe.
ethnocentrism: judging foreigners by the standards of one’s own group; leads to problems in interpreting world history.